Inhibition of critical enzymes & interference with the metabolic functions of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) & photoreceptors. Both drugs apparently have a selective affinity for melanin, so it gets concentrated in RPE & uveal tissue & is retained for long periods, even after its usage is stopped. Accumulation of pigment laden cells in outer retinal layers 3. Uronema chloroquine phosphate Love plaquenil Plaquenil weight loss how much did you lose Aug 06, 2014 Hydroxychloroquine, sold under the brand name Plaquenil Sanofi-Aventis, is an antimalarial drug that has gained widespread use in treating various autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. 1 By some estimates, more than 150,000 patients are on long-term therapy with this medication in America alone. 2 Retinal toxicity associated with HCQ use is. Ocular findings of HCQ retinal toxicity as detected by various screening modalities. A female patient was diagnosed with HCQ retinal toxicity at the age of 53 years, having taken HCQ for 12 years at 400 mg/day. Hydroxychloroquine is almost universally recommended for patients with systemic lupus erythematosus SLE and has wide-ranging benefits, but risks include toxic retinopathy. Symptoms: can be asymptomatic Earliest symptoms - difficulty in reading/ fine tasks due to central / paracentral scotomas Gradually these enlarge & involve fixation, reducing visual acuity later. The earliest histopathologic change, even before RPE damage, appears to be membranous cytoplasmic bodies in ganglion cells and degenerative changes in photoreceptor outer segments. Damage & reduction of photoreceptors It increases with daily dose & duration & varies from 1-28% without any predilection for any particular age, sex or race. Hydroxychloroquine toxic retinopathy Toxic Retinopathy With Hydroxychloroquine Therapy, Hydroxychloroquine-related retinal toxicity Rheumatology. Plaquenil retinal toxicityTake plaquenil with foodPlaquenil autoimmune thyroiditisChloroquine malaria prophylaxisPlaquenil contraindications To reassess and redetermine the overall prevelance of hydroxychloroquine induced retinopathy. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of 729 patients who were referred to hydroxychloroquine retinopathy screening clinic in the medical eye unit at St Thomas Hospital, London, UK. The following data were collected age, gender, body weight. The Risk of Toxic Retinopathy Among Patients on.. Hydroxychloroquine retinopathy — implications of research.. Hydroxychloroquine Plaquenil Toxicity and Recommendations.. IMPORTANCE Hydroxychloroquine sulfate is widely used for the long-term treatment of autoimmune conditions but can cause irreversible toxic retinopathy. Prior estimations of risk were low but were based largely on short-term users or severe retinal toxicity bull's eye maculopathy. Not only is hydroxychloroquine-induced retinopathy more common than previously thought, 4 it is pernicious in its onset and largely irreversible. Moreover, the toxic effects have been shown to progress even after treatment has stopped. 5 This article is from June 2011 and may contain outdated material. Download PDF. Many systemic medications may cause retinal toxicity. One such commonly used medication for dermatologic and rheumatologic inflammatory conditions is hydroxychloroquine Plaquenil, a chloroquine derivative.